Leadership Development Report (LDR)

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Appropriate For Existing Employees
Comprehensiveness Intermediate
Administration Time - 1 hr
Format mouse icon pencil icon
Scoring Options hand icon Internet icon
Language English
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Leadership Development Report (LDR)

Douglas N. Jackson, Ph.D. © 1993, 2001

Leaders have an impact on employee productivity, turnover, and organizational morale. The Leadership Development Report (LDR) is a powerful, objective assessment that provides insight into leaders' work-oriented personality, and helps them to increase their overall effectiveness. This sophisticated expert system provides detailed advice based on the leaders' scores on 25 personality dimensions. The LDR is useful in a variety of situations. It is quick and easy to complete, and is a non-threatening assessment that facilitates interpersonal and work-related success and growth.


• An aid to managerial and executive development and performance.
• A foundation for management and executive counselling.
• A pre-hire assessment for selection and placement of employment applicants.
• A career aid for MBA and executive development program participants.
• Adjunct to team building exercises.

Thorough Research & Development

Over 30 years of research has identified the personality dimensions that predict leadership performance. The LDR is based on and draws the best items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised (JPI-R) , Personality Research Form (PRF), and Survey of Work Styles (SWS). These tests are among the most widely researched personality assessments in existence - over 2000 published research articles reference one or more of these assessments. The LDR items were selected with high-performing managers and executives in mind.

Item Selection

The statements comprising the LDR were selected using complex statistical analyses, and represent the most reliable and predictive items drawn from a pool of more than 4500 statements on which the JPI-R, PRF and SWS were based. Individual test scales were validated with respect to 42 managerial performance dimensions. Careful factor and item analyses were conducted to identify the best items for the reduced set of 25 scales. The scales were then standardized with regard to a population of managers and executives.

Superior Developmental Advice

Research on each of the personality measures was carefully reviewed in relation to actual case studies to aid in the development of advice. The advice seeks to optimize leadership effectiveness given a high or low score on each of the personality dimensions. The LDR advice is not designed to change one's personality; rather, it promotes the development of strategies that allow managers and executives to work and manage more effectively, given a set of personality characteristics.

Leadership Dimensions

The following 25 LDR personality scales are aggregated into 13 Leadership Dimensions and 5 Leadership Orientations.

1. Orientation to other people

• Extraversion
• Sociability
• Dominance
• Social Confidence
• Expressiveness
• Independence
• Independence
• Approval Seeking
• Agreeableness

2. Orientation to Work

• Industriousness
• Work Orientation
• Energy Level
• Opportunism
• Risk Orientation
• Social Astuteness
• Job Satisfaction
• Competitiveness
• Work Involvement
• Time Urgency
• Work Involvement

3. Temperamental Orientation

• Anger
• Emotionality
• Anxiety
• Supportiveness
• Impatience

4. Accountability

• Dependability
• Organization
• Traditional Values
• Responsibility

5. Cognitive Orientation

• Openness to Experience
• Intellectual Curiosity
• Change
• Open-Mindedness


The norms for the LDR are based on the responses of a substantial group of male and female managers and executives (N = 227) from diverse types of organizations. Ages ranged from 25 years to 65 years and older.


Good internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the three well-researched and standardized tests on which the LDR is based. For example, the Personality Research Form (PRF) has a median internal consistency reliability of .70 and median test-retest reliability of .91.


The 25 personality dimensions measured by the LDR show substantial empirical validity. They were validated by computing multiple correlations between personality and 360-degree feedback ratings for 42 leadership skill ratings. Multiple correlations ranged from .42 to .56. All were substantially significant to the .01 level. Furthermore, the PRF, JPI-R, and SWS, the measures upon which the LDR is based, have consistently displayed solid evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with self and peer ratings, as well as with numerous other measures. All measures show meaningful correlations with executive performance.

Fax-in Scoring
After an applicant completes the LDR, the answer sheet is faxed to a toll-free number. Our fax-in scoring system generates the report and a printer copy is either couriered or emailed. The materials required for fax-in scoring are LDR test manual, question booklet and answer sheet.

Internet Scoring

The Leadership Development Report can also be completed at on-line, which allows you instant local and remote testing and administrative access to tests and test results.

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