Leadership Opinion Questionnaire
The Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOG) provides measures of two important dimensions of leadership -- Consideration (C) and Structure (S). Originally identified in the Ohio State University leadership studies, these two broad patterns have been shown to be meaningful in a wide variety of supervisor-subordinate situations. The instrument, in its present form, is the product of more than thirty years of research and used in a variety of organizational settings. It provides a brief measure (40 items) of leadership attitudes regarding two basic dimensions. Individuals respond in terms of how frequently they feel they should engage in the behaviour described in each item. There is no time limit; most people will complete the LOQ in fifteen minutes.
The two dimensions measured by this questionnaire are defined as follows:
Degree of rapport, mutual trust and two - way communication with subordinates. Reflects the extent to which an individual is likely to have job relationships with subordinates characterized by mutual trust, respect for their ideas, consideration of their feelings, and a certain warmth between the individual and them. A high score is indicative of a climate of good rapport and two-way communication. A low score indicates the individual is likely to be more impersonal in relations with group members.
Tendency to initiate ideas, set standards, and plan or direct a group toward organizational goals. Reflects the extent to which an individual is likely to define and structure his or her own role and those of subordinates toward goal attainment. A high score on this dimension characterizes individuals who play a very active role in directing group activities through planning, communicating information, scheduling, criticizing, trying out new ideas, and so forth. A low score indicates the individual is likely to be relatively inactive in giving direction in these ways.
An important research finding is that these dimensions are independent. This means that supervisors may be high on both dimensions, low on both, or high on one and low on the other.
The LOQ has been used in a wide variety of organizations. These include industrial and business organizations, educational institutions, hospitals and nursing schools, research and development laboratories, military organizations, and various governmental institutions. Studies with the LOQ have been carried out in a number of foreign countries, including Sweden, India, Japan, Israel, Brazil, the Netherlands, Germany, England, Canada, France, and Norway.
In a number of management programs, the LOQ has been used to provide trainees insight into their own management patterns and feedback at an early stage in the course, as well as gaining their interest and participation. This has proved useful in courses ranging from first-line supervisory training, to middle management training, to training of high-level executives. For example, this method has been used with nursing supervisors and hospital administrators in health care organizations; with engineering managers in electronics firms; with R & D managers in a variety of high tech companies; and with school administrators and in college courses in management in a variety of educational institutions. The LOQ is also used frequently by consultants in their manager training workshops.
Normative Data. Percentile norms are provided for consideration and structure and include the following job classifications:
• general managerial personnel
• presidents and vice presidents
• accounting managers
• bank/insurance managers
• human resource managers
• office managers
• sales managers
• administrative assistants
• computer programmers
• clerical employees
• college students
Validation Studies. Validation studies have been conducted for the following jobs and the scores on the LOQ were found to be related to job performance, department/ work group satisfaction, work
group attitude and morale, productivity and unit stress:
• department managers
• first-line supervisors
• chemical supervisors
• hospital supervisors
• nursing supervisors in hospitals
• pharmaceutical company supervisors
• sales supervisors
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